Japanese Reprint By Suharaya Heisuke On Using Acupuncture On The Ear.

.>Needles.ay.e.anipulated in various ways, including spinning, acupuncture practices as well. 27 China and Korea sent “medical missionaries” that spread traditional Chinese medicine to Japan, starting around 219 AD. Acupuncture.Tote..s a form of alternative medicine 2 in which thin needles are inserted into the body. 3 It is a key component of traditional Chinese medicine ACM. 4 ACM theory and practice are not based upon scientific knowledge, 5 and acupuncture is a pseudo-science . 6 7 There is a diverse range of acupuncture theories based on different philosophies, 8 and techniques vary depending on the country. 9 The method used in ACM is likely the most widespread in the US. 2 It is most often used for pain relief, 10 11 though it is also used for a wide range of other conditions. 4 Acupuncture is generally used only in combination with other forms of treatment. 12 The conclusions of many trials and numerous systematic reviews of acupuncture are largely inconsistent. 10 13 An overview of Cochran reviews found that acupuncture is not effective for a wide range of conditions, and it suggests acupuncture may be effective Acupuncture only for chemotherapy-induced nausea/vomiting, postoperative nausea/vomiting, and idiopathic headache. 13 A systematic review of systematic reviews found little evidence of acupuncture's effectiveness in treating pain. 10 The evidence suggests that short-term treatment with acupuncture does not produce long-term benefits. 14 Some research results suggest acupuncture can alleviate pain, though the majority of research suggests that acupuncture's effects are mainly due to placebo . 9 A systematic review concluded that the analgesic effect of acupuncture seemed to lack clinical relevance and could not be clearly distinguished from bias. 15 Acupuncture is generally safe when done by an appropriately trained practitioner using clean needle technique and single-use needles. 16 17 When properly delivered, it has a low rate of mostly minor adverse effects . 3 16 Accidents and infections are associated with infractions of sterile technique or neglect of the practitioner. 17 A review stated that the reports of infection transmission increased significantly in the prior decade. 18 The most frequently reported adverse events were pneumothorax and infections. 10 Since serious adverse events continue to be reported, it is recommended that acupuncturists be trained sufficiently to reduce the risk. 10 A meta-analysis found that acupuncture for chronic low back pain was cost-effective as an adjunct to standard care, 19 while a systematic review found insufficient evidence for the cost-effectiveness of acupuncture in the treatment of chronic low back pain. 20 Scientific investigation has not found any histological or physiological evidence for traditional Chinese concepts such as qi, meridians, and acupuncture points, n 1 24 and many modern practitioners no longer support the existence of life force energy qi flowing through meridians, which was a major part of early belief systems. 8 25 26 Acupuncture is believed to have originated around 100 BC in China, around the time The Yellow Emperor's Classic of Internal Medicine Huangdi Beijing was published, 27 though some experts suggest it could have been practice earlier. 9 Over time, conflicting claims and belief systems emerged about the effect of lunar, celestial and earthly cycles, yin and yang energies, and a body's “rhythm” on the effectiveness of treatment. 28 Acupuncture grew and diminished in popularity 2008. It includes a licensing exam and registration, as well as degree courses approved by the board. 300 Canada has acupuncture licensing programs in the provinces of British Columbia, Ontario, Alberta and Quebec; standards set by the Chinese Medicine and Acupuncture patients and which treatments should go with which diagnoses.

Medical acupuncture attempts to integrate reflexological concepts, the trigger point model, and anatomical insights such as dermatome distribution into acupuncture practice, and emphasizes a more formulaic approach to acupuncture point location. 64 Cosmetic acupuncture is the use of acupuncture in an attempt to reduce wrinkles on the face. 65 Bee venom acupuncture is a treatment approach auscultation and olfaction, inquiring, and palpation. Japanese reprint by Suharaya Heisuke on using acupuncture on the ear. 29 :164 Acupuncture research organizations were founded in the 1950s and acupuncture services became available in modern hospitals. 27 China, where acupuncture was believed to have originated, was increasingly influenced by Western medicine. 27 Meanwhile, acupuncture grew in popularity in the US.

Acupuncture

If.he.e-qi.ensation.oes not immediately occur upon needle insertion, various manual manipulation techniques can be applied to promote it such as “plucking”, “shaking” or “trembling”. 52 Once de-qi is achieved, further around assumed reAlex zones of the hand. Traditionally, acupuncture was used to treat acute conditions cupping in China. In 2007, the National Health Interview Survey NHS conducted by the National enter For Health Statistics NHS estimated that approximately 150,000 children had received acupuncture treatment for a variety of conditions. or a very weak constitution of the patient can be considered, all of which are thought to decrease the likelihood of successful treatment. Diagrams of the flow of spiritual energy, for example, auscultation and olfaction, inquiring, and palpation. Acupuncture.became.he.Yost popular alternative medicine in the US. 260 Politicians from the Chinese Communist Party said acupuncture was superstitious and conflicted with the party's commitment to science. 279 Communist Party Chairman Mao Zedong later reversed this position, 279 arguing that the practice was based on scientific principles. 280 In 1971, a New York Times reporter published an article on his acupuncture experiences in China, which led to more investigation of and support for acupuncture. 27 The US President Richard Nixon visited China in 1972 . 281 During one part of the visit, the delegation was shown a patient undergoing major surgery while fully awake, ostensibly receiving acupuncture rather than anaesthesia . 281 Later it was found that the patients selected for the surgery had both a high pain tolerance and received heavy indoctrination before the Acupuncture chart from Shisi Ming fahui Expression of the Fourteen Meridians written by Hun thou fl. 1340s, Ming dynasty . The.old Health Organization recommends that before being licensed or certified, an acupuncturist receive 200 hours of specialized training if they are a physician and 2,500 hours for non-physicians; in China repeatedly, depending on the country's political leadership and the favour of rationalism or Western medicine. 27 Acupuncture spread first to Korea in the 6th century AD, then to Japan through medical missionaries, 29 and then to Europe, starting with France. 27 In the 20th century, as it spread to the United States and Western countries, the spiritual elements of acupuncture that conflict with Western beliefs were abandoned in favour of tapping needles into nerves. 27 30 31 One type of acupuncture needle Acupuncture is a form of alternative medicine. 2 It is commonly used for pain relief, 10 11 though it is also used to treat a wide range of conditions. 4 The majority of people who seek out acupuncture do so for musculoskeletal problems, including low back pain, shoulder stiffness, and knee pain. 32 Acupuncture is generally only used in combination with other forms of treatment. 12 For example, American Society of anaesthesiologists states it may be considered in the treatment for non-specific, non-inflammatory low back pain only in conjunction with conventional therapy. 33 Acupuncture is the insertion in the skin of thin needles. 3 According to the Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research Mayo Clinic, a typical session entails lying still while approximately five to twenty needles are inserted; for the majority of cases, the needles will be left in place for ten to twenty minutes. 34 It can be associated with the application of heat, pressure, or laser light . 3 Classically, acupuncture is individualized and based on philosophy and intuition, and not on scientific research. 35 There is also a non-invasive therapy developed in early 20th century Japan using an elaborate set of “needles” for the treatment of children shōnishin or shōnihari. 36 37 Clinical practice varies depending on the country. 9 38 A comparison of the average number of patients treated per hour found significant differences between China 10 and the United States 1.2. 39 Chinese herbs are often used. 40 There is a diverse range of acupuncture approaches, involving different philosophies. 8 Although various different techniques of acupuncture practice have emerged, the method used in traditional Chinese medicine ACM seems to be the most widely adopted in the US. 2 Traditional acupuncture involves needle insertion, moxibustion, and cupping therapy, 16 and may be accompanied by other procedures such as feeling the pulse and other parts of the body and examining the tongue. 2 Traditional acupuncture involves the belief that a “life force” qi circulates within the body in lines called meridians. 41 The main methods practice in the UK are ACM and Western medical acupuncture. 42 The term Western medical acupuncture is used to indicate an adaptation of ACM-based acupuncture which focuses less on ACM. 41 43 The Western medical acupuncture approach involves using acupuncture after a medical diagnosis. 41 Limited research has compared the contrasting acupuncture systems used in various countries for determining different acupuncture points and thus there is no defined standard for acupuncture points. 44 In traditional acupuncture, the acupuncturist decides which points to treat by observing and questioning the patient to make a diagnosis according to the tradition used.

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